This paper is concerned with analyzing the sidedness of action of various determinants which alter the rate of ouabain binding to human red blood cell ghosts. Thus, ouabain binding promoted by orthophosphate (Pi) and its inhibition by Na are shown to be due to inside Pi and inside Na. External K inhibits Pi-promoted ouabain binding and Nao acts to decrease the effectiveness of Ko. Similarly, inside uridine triphosphate (UTPi) stimulates the rate of ouabain binding which can be antagonized by either Nai or Ko acting alone. The actions of Nai and Ko are different when ouabain binding is promoted by Pi and UTPi compared to inside adenosine triphosphate (ATPi). With ATPi, the ouabain binding rate is only affected when Nai and Ko are both present. Possible differences in the mechanism of action of K and Na on Pi-and UTP-promoted binding are discussed in the light of their sidedness of action.

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