1. The cataphoretic P.D. of suspended particles is assumed to be due to an excess in the concentration of one kind of a pair of oppositely charged ions in the film of water enveloping the particles and this excess is generally ascribed to a preferential adsorption of this kind of ions by the particle. The term adsorption fails, however, to distinguish between the two kinds of forces which can bring about such an unequal distribution of ions between the enveloping film and the opposite film of the electrical double layer, namely, forces inherent in the water itself and forces inherent in the particle (e.g. chemical attraction between particle and adsorbed ions).
2. It had been shown in a preceding paper that collodion particles suspended in an aqueous solution of an ordinary electrolyte like NaCl, Na2SO4, Na4Fe(CN)6, CaCl2, HCl, H2SO4, or NaOH are always negatively charged, and that the addition of these electrolytes increases the negative charge as long as their concentration is below M/1,000 until a certain maximal P.D. is reached. Hence no matter whether acid, alkali, or a neutral salt is added, the concentration of anions must always be greater in the film enveloping the collodion particles than in the opposite film of the electrical double layer, and the reverse is true for the concentration of cations. This might suggest that the collodion particles, on account of their chemical constitution, attract anions with a greater force than cations, but such an assumption is rendered difficult in view of the following facts.
3. Experiments with dyes show that at pH 5.8 collodion particles are stained by basic dyes (i.e. dye cations) but not by acid dyes (i.e. dye anions), and that solutions of basic dyes are at pH 5.8 more readily decolorized by particles of collodion than acid dyes. It is also shown in this paper that crystalline egg albumin, gelatin, and Witte's peptone form durable films on collodion only when the protein exists in the form of a cation or when it is isoelectric, but not when it exists in the form of an anion (i.e. on the alkaline side of its isoelectric point). Hence if any ions of dyes or proteins are permanently bound at the surface of collodion particles through forces inherent in the collodion they are cations but not anions. The fact that isoelectric proteins form durable films on collodion particles suggests, that the forces responsible for this combination are not ionic.
4. It is shown that salts of dyes or proteins, the cations of which are capable of forming durable films on the surface of the collodion, influence the cataphoretic P.D. of the collodion particles in a way entirely different from that of any other salts inasmuch as surprisingly low concentrations of salts, the cation of which is a dye or a protein, render the negatively charged collodion particles positive. Crystalline egg albumin and gelatin have such an effect even in concentrations of 1/130,000 or 1/65,000 of 1 per cent, i.e. in a probable molar concentration of about 10–9.
5. Salts in which the dye or protein is an anion have no such effect but act like salts of the type of NaCl or Na2SO4 on the cataphoretic P.D. of collodion particles.
6. Amino-acids do not form durable films on the surface of collodion particles at any pH and the salts of amino-acids influence their cataphoretic P.D. in the same way as NaCl but not in the same way as proteins or dyes, regardless of whether the amino-acid ion is a cation or an anion.
7. Ordinary salts like LaCl3 also fail to form a durable film on the surface of collodion particles.
8. Until evidence to the contrary is furnished, these facts seem to suggest that the increase of the negative charge of the collodion particles caused by the addition of low concentrations of ordinary electrolytes is chiefly if not entirely due to forces inherent in the aqueous solution but to a less extent, if at all, due to an attraction of the anions of the electrolyte by forces inherent in the collodion particles.