Troponin B is an inhibitor of the Mg++-activated ATPase activity of actomyosin. The inhibitory effect, which is observed, however, depends upon whether tropomyosin is also present. In the absence of tropomyosin the inhibition by troponin B is markedly reduced by increasing the ionic strength from 0.03 to 0.07, but is not affected by calcium up to a concentration of 10-4 M. Troponin A relieves the inhibition in both the absence and presence of calcium, an effect which is also shown by many polyanions and is illustrated by using RNA. Tropomyosin enhances the inhibitory effect of troponin B and renders it more resistant to increasing ionic strength but it does not make the inhibition calcium-sensitive. However, when troponin A or low concentrations of polyanions are added to troponin B and tropomyosin, the actomyosin ATPase activity becomes calcium-sensitive; i.e., in the presence of tropomyosin, troponin A or polyanions do not relieve the inhibitory action of troponin B in the absence of calcium but only in its presence. In marked contrast to this is the effect of troponin A in the absence of tropomyosin where it neutralizes the effect of troponin B under all conditions. Thus troponin A and the polyanions both confer calcium regulation on the troponin B-tropomyosin system. The similar effects exhibited by troponin A and the polyanions suggest that the addition of net negative charge to troponin B is an important factor in the conferral of calcium sensitivity. It is also clear that tropomyosin is an essential component of the regulatory mechanism.

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