Day old Drosophila pupae were subjected to a variety of closely controlled temperature shocks. Twenty-five hours after puparium formation (at 23°), temperatures from 39.5–41.5° (Q1 = 2.3) differentially disturb the formation of the posterior crossvein. Three other separate treatments disturb posterior crossvein formation: treatments in the range 36.0–37.0° at 25 hours; 37.3–37.8° at 25 hours; and 39.5–41.5° at 19 hours. Certain qualitative effects are associated with certain temperatures: elliptical holes are seen in wings of flies exposed 25 hours after puparium formation to temperatures from 37.3–37.8°. Anterior crossvein defects ensue if animals are similarly exposed to temperatures from 37.9–38.2°. Within the physiological range, animals raised at higher temperatures are more resistant to the effects of temperatures at 39.5–41.5°. An extremely rapid temperature adaptation by exposures to temperatures in the range 31–38° results in markedly greater resistance to heat shock; here resistance to production of crossvein defects increases faster than to death. The association between qualitative effects and treatment temperatures is modified by changing the temperature at which the animals spend their first day of pupal life. Summation experiments support conclusions drawn from the simpler experiments. Genetic variation and interspecific variation are discussed in the present context, as well as implications of the role of protein denaturation in the biological effects of high temperatures and further, more general experiments.

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