1. When a solution of a salt of gelatin or crystalline egg albumin is separated by a collodion membrane from a watery solution (free from protein) a potential difference is set up across the membrane in which the protein is positively charged in the case of protein-acid salts and in which the protein is negatively charged in the case of metal proteinates. The turning point is the isoelectric point of the protein.
2. Measurements of the pH of the (inside) protein solution and of the outside watery solution show that when equilibrium is established the value pH inside minus pH outside is positive in the case of protein-acid salts and negative in the case of metal proteinates. This is to be expected when the P.D. is caused by the establishment of a Donnan equilibrium, since in that case the pH should be lower outside than inside in the case of a protein-acid salt and should be higher outside than inside in the case of a metal proteinate.
3. At the isoelectric point where the electrical charge is zero the value of pH inside minus pH outside becomes also zero.
4. It is shown that a P.D. is established between suspended particles of powdered gelatin and the surrounding watery solution and that the sign of charge of the particles is positive when they contain gelatin-acid salts, while it is negative when the powdered particles contain metal gelatinate. At the isoelectric point the charge is zero.
5. Measurements of the pH inside the powdered particles and of the pH in the outside watery solution show that when equilibrium is established the value pH inside minus pH outside is positive when the powdered particles contain a gelatin-acid salt, while the value pH inside minus pH outside is negative when the powdered particles contain Na gelatinate. At the isoelectric point the value pH inside minus pH outside is zero.
6. The addition of neutral salts depresses the electrical charge of the powdered particles of protein-acid salts. It is shown that the addition of salts to a suspension of powdered particles of gelatin chloride also diminishes the value of pH inside minus pH outside.
7. The agreement between the values 58 (pH inside minus pH outside) and the P. D. observed by the Compton electrometer is not only qualitative but quantitative. This proves that the difference in the concentration of acid (or alkali, as the case may be) in the two phases is the only cause for the observed P.D.
8. The Donnan theory demands that the P.D. of a gelatin chloride solution should be 1½ times as great as the P.D. of a gelatin sulfate solution of the same pH and the same concentration (1 per cent) of originally isoelectric gelatin. This is found to be correct and it is also shown that the values of pH inside minus pH outside for the two solutions possess the ratio of 3:2.
9. All these measurements prove that the electrical charges of suspended particles of protein are determined exclusively by the Donnan equilibrium.