A simplified procedure for filter paper electrophoresis is described in which disturbing factors such as evaporation, heating, buffer concentration gradients, and pH changes in the electrode vessels were reduced to a minimum. Artificial mixtures of highly purified proteins could be separated and the components isolated. The application of the method to a variety of studies on serum proteins is demonstrated. Protein concentration in paper segments was determined by two different methods of protein estimation. Curves were obtained showing the same five major peaks for normal serum as found by the classical methods of free electrophoresis. Comparisons were made of the areas of the various components under the curves obtained with the different methods.
Two dimensional electrophoresis was applied to serum and serum components. It proved of value in demonstrating the heterogeneity of fractions such as the γ-globulin of serum.
The polysaccharide dextran was used as an index of the extent of electro-osmotic flow during the course of the various experiments. The ratio of the distance of electroosmotic flow and the distance of protein migration was shown to be constant for a given type of paper. For serum albumin on Munktell 20 paper this ratio was 0.35. A formula for mobilities applicable to liquid in a highly porous supporting medium is presented. Mobility values for human serum albumin at various pH levels on paper showed approximate agreement with those obtained in free solution giving a similar isoelectric point.