The surfaces of all marine invertebrates which have been experimented upon are permeable for water and also for both the salts or their ions which are in solution in their blood and in sea water. The forces which tend to bring the salt content of the blood into equilibrium with the salt content of the surrounding sea water are just as great as the forces which strive to prevent osmotic differences. The skin of these animals, save in the cases where special modifications have arisen, serves only as a protecting barrier preventing the loss of the body colloids.

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