The creeping of the beetle Tetraopes tetraopthalmus during negatively geotropic orientation shows the angles of orientation (θ) on a surface inclined at α° to the horizontal to be proportional to sin α. The direction of orientation easily suffers temporary reversal to positive as result of handling. Mechanical stability during upward progression should be just possible when K1 cot α = K2 sin θ + K3 cos θ, the weight of the body being supported on the tripod formed by the legs on either side and by the posterior tip of the abdomen. Lack of this stability produces tensions on the legs through (1) the bilaterally distributed pull of the body mass on the legs, and (2) the torque on the legs due to the weight of the abdomen. The downward gravitational displacement of the tip of the abdomen causes K2 and K3 in the preceding formula to be functions of α.
These relations have been tested in detail by shifting the location of the center of gravity, by attaching additional masses anteriorly and posteriorly, and by decreasing the total load through amputation of the abdomen; the latter operation changes the conditions for stability.
Different formulæ are thus obtained (cf. earlier papers) for the orientation of animals in which the mechanics of progression and the method of support of the body weight on an inclined surface are not the same. This demonstrates in a direct way that the respective empirical equations cannot be regarded as accidents. The results are in essence the same as that already obtained with young mammals. The diversity of equations required for the physically unlike cases merely strengthens the conception of geotropic orientation as limited by the tensions applied to the musculature of the body (caterpillars, slugs) or of appendages (beetles, and certain other forms) when the body is supported upon an inclined surface, since equations respectively pertaining to the several instances, and satisfactorily describing the observations, are deduced on this basis.