1. Ciona possesses two means of responding to an increase in the intensity of illumination. One is by means of a local reaction; the other is by a retraction reflex of the body as a whole.
2. The "ocelli" are not photoreceptors. The photosensitive area is in the intersiphonal region containing the neural mass. This area contains no pigment.
3. The reaction time to light is composed of a sensitization period during which Ciona must be exposed to the light, and of a latent period during which it need not be illuminated in order to react to the stimulus received during the sensitization period.
4. The duration of the reaction time varies inversely as the intensity. Analysis shows the latent period to be constant. The relation between the sensitization period and the intensity follows the Bunsen-Roscoe rule.
5. During dark adaptation the reaction time is at first large, then it decreases until a constant minimum is reached.
6. A photochemical system consisting of a reversible reaction is suggested in order to account for the phenomena observed. This system includes a photosensitive substance and its precursor, the dynamics of the reaction following closely the peculiarities of the photosensitivity of Ciona.
7. It is shown that in order to produce a reaction, a constant ratio must be reached between the amount of sensitive substance broken down by the stimulus and the amount previously broken down.
8. From the chemical system suggested certain experimental predictions were made. The actual experiments verified these predictions exactly.
9. The results obtained with regularly repeated stimulation not only fail to show any basis for a learning process or for the presence of a "higher behavior," but follow the requirements of the photochemical system suggested before.