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Table 1.
Characteristics of the three actin assemblies
WavesRingsTrails
Location Undifferentiated neurites, axons, and dendritesa Mainly axons, ∼10–20% dendritesb,c Axonsd, ?dendrites unknown 
Dynamics Move at ∼2–3 µm/mina None observede Elongate at ∼1 µm/sd 
Mode of actin polymerization Treadmilling, nucleators (Arp2/3, formins) involvedf Actin/spectrin scaffold, capping proteinsa Nucleators (formins)d 
Effect of actin-disrupting agents Yesa Yesb Yesd 
Effect of microtubule-disrupting agents Yesa Yese Nod 
Initiating triggers ?Actin nucleation on endosomesd 
Putative function Deliver actin to developing growth conesa,f,g,h Support axonal plasma membrane, sodium channels in axon initiation segmentb Deliver actin to axons and synapses (axonal transport)d 
WavesRingsTrails
Location Undifferentiated neurites, axons, and dendritesa Mainly axons, ∼10–20% dendritesb,c Axonsd, ?dendrites unknown 
Dynamics Move at ∼2–3 µm/mina None observede Elongate at ∼1 µm/sd 
Mode of actin polymerization Treadmilling, nucleators (Arp2/3, formins) involvedf Actin/spectrin scaffold, capping proteinsa Nucleators (formins)d 
Effect of actin-disrupting agents Yesa Yesb Yesd 
Effect of microtubule-disrupting agents Yesa Yese Nod 
Initiating triggers ?Actin nucleation on endosomesd 
Putative function Deliver actin to developing growth conesa,f,g,h Support axonal plasma membrane, sodium channels in axon initiation segmentb Deliver actin to axons and synapses (axonal transport)d 

?, unknown.

a

Ruthel and Banker (1998).

b

Xu et al. (2013).

c

D’Este et al. (2015).

d

Ganguly et al. (2015).

e

Zhong et al. (2014).

f

Katsuno et al. (2015).

g

Ruthel and Banker (1999).

h

Flynn et al. (2009).

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