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Table 1.

Regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

Name Organism Acetylation site Acetylase Deacetylase Effect on enzyme Mechanism Nutrient signal References 
Acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, long-chain (Acadl) Mouse K42 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by fasting Hirschey et al., 2010  
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) Mouse Unknown Unknown SIRT3 Up-regulation Deacetylation increases acetaminophen toxic-metabolite binding Inhibited by fasting Lu et al., 2011  
Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1 (ACSS1) Human Unknown Unknown SIRT1 Down-regulation Unknown Unknown Hallows et al., 2006  
Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1 (ACSS2) Human K642 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Active site interference Unknown Hallows et al., 2006; Schwer et al., 2006  
Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) Human K288 Unknown Unknown Down-regulation Active site interference Stimulated by high glucose and inhibited by high amino acid Zhao et al., 2010  
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1(CPS1) Human Unknown Unknown SIRT5 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by starvation, high protein diet and calorie restriction Nakagawa et al., 2009  
Enoyl-CoA, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (EHHADH) Human K165,K171, K346, K586 Unknown Unknown Up-regulation Unknown Stimulated by high fatty acid Zhao et al., 2010  
GAPDH Human K117, K227, K251 PCAF Unknown Nuclear translocation Promoting Siah binding and nuclear translocation Stimulated by apoptotic stresses Ventura et al., 2010  
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) Mouse Unknown Unknown SIRT3 Unknown Unknown Unknown Lombard et al., 2007  
GP Human K470 Unknown Unknown Down-regulation Promoting GP dephosphorylation and inactivation Stimulated by glucose, insulin and inhibited by glucagon Zhang et al., 2012  
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) Human K310, K447, K473 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Causing conformational changes Inhibited by fasting Shimazu et al., 2010  
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) Mouse Unknown Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by caloric restriction Someya et al., 2010  
Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) Human K185, K301, K307, K314 Unknown Unknown Up-regulation Unknown Stimulated by high glucose Zhao et al., 2010  
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) Human K88 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Active site interference Stimulated by high glucose and high amino acid Yu et al., 2009; Hallows et al., 2011  
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) Human K70, K71, K594 P300 SIRT2 Down-regulation Promoting degradation via proteasome Stimulated by high glucose Jiang et al., 2011  
Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) Human K251, K253, K254 Unknown SIRT1 Up-regulation Allowing efficient phosphotransfer Stimulated by high glucose Hallows et al., 2012  
PK, muscle (PKM2) Human K305 PCAF Unknown Down-regulation Targeting to lysosomal degradation Stimulated by high glucose Lv et al., 2011  
Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (Sdha) Mouse K179, K485, K498, K538 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Acetylation controls the substrate entry Unknown Cimen et al., 2010  
Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) Human K53, K68 K89, K122 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by nutrient starvation Qiu et al., 2010; Tao et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011  
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) Human K27, K29 P300/CBP Unknown Up-regulation Inhibiting degradation via proteasome Unknown Yu et al., 2012  
Name Organism Acetylation site Acetylase Deacetylase Effect on enzyme Mechanism Nutrient signal References 
Acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, long-chain (Acadl) Mouse K42 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by fasting Hirschey et al., 2010  
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) Mouse Unknown Unknown SIRT3 Up-regulation Deacetylation increases acetaminophen toxic-metabolite binding Inhibited by fasting Lu et al., 2011  
Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1 (ACSS1) Human Unknown Unknown SIRT1 Down-regulation Unknown Unknown Hallows et al., 2006  
Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1 (ACSS2) Human K642 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Active site interference Unknown Hallows et al., 2006; Schwer et al., 2006  
Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) Human K288 Unknown Unknown Down-regulation Active site interference Stimulated by high glucose and inhibited by high amino acid Zhao et al., 2010  
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1(CPS1) Human Unknown Unknown SIRT5 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by starvation, high protein diet and calorie restriction Nakagawa et al., 2009  
Enoyl-CoA, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (EHHADH) Human K165,K171, K346, K586 Unknown Unknown Up-regulation Unknown Stimulated by high fatty acid Zhao et al., 2010  
GAPDH Human K117, K227, K251 PCAF Unknown Nuclear translocation Promoting Siah binding and nuclear translocation Stimulated by apoptotic stresses Ventura et al., 2010  
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) Mouse Unknown Unknown SIRT3 Unknown Unknown Unknown Lombard et al., 2007  
GP Human K470 Unknown Unknown Down-regulation Promoting GP dephosphorylation and inactivation Stimulated by glucose, insulin and inhibited by glucagon Zhang et al., 2012  
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) Human K310, K447, K473 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Causing conformational changes Inhibited by fasting Shimazu et al., 2010  
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) Mouse Unknown Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by caloric restriction Someya et al., 2010  
Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) Human K185, K301, K307, K314 Unknown Unknown Up-regulation Unknown Stimulated by high glucose Zhao et al., 2010  
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) Human K88 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Active site interference Stimulated by high glucose and high amino acid Yu et al., 2009; Hallows et al., 2011  
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) Human K70, K71, K594 P300 SIRT2 Down-regulation Promoting degradation via proteasome Stimulated by high glucose Jiang et al., 2011  
Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) Human K251, K253, K254 Unknown SIRT1 Up-regulation Allowing efficient phosphotransfer Stimulated by high glucose Hallows et al., 2012  
PK, muscle (PKM2) Human K305 PCAF Unknown Down-regulation Targeting to lysosomal degradation Stimulated by high glucose Lv et al., 2011  
Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (Sdha) Mouse K179, K485, K498, K538 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Acetylation controls the substrate entry Unknown Cimen et al., 2010  
Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) Human K53, K68 K89, K122 Unknown SIRT3 Down-regulation Unknown Inhibited by nutrient starvation Qiu et al., 2010; Tao et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2011  
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) Human K27, K29 P300/CBP Unknown Up-regulation Inhibiting degradation via proteasome Unknown Yu et al., 2012  
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