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Table I.

Experimental systems initiating PM blebbing and their key regulators

Nonapoptotic bleb formation
 caused by
Proposed
 function
Rho/ROCK
Myosin
Formin
Src
References
Protease inhibition in 3D collagen converts
     spindle-shaped HAT1080 and MDA-MB231
     cells into spherical cell shape by remodeling of
     contractile actin cortex Tumor cell
 invasion     Wolf et al., 2003  
A375 cells in 3D matrigel leads to cell rounding
     and remodeling of contractile actin cortex Tumor cell
 invasion    Sahai and Marshall, 2003  
p53−/− MEFs and A375 cells have elevated
     RhoA activity leading to cell rounding Cell invasion    Gadea et al., 2007  
MDA-MB-435 cells in 3D matrigel leads to cell
     rounding and remodeling of the contractile
     actin cortex Tumor cell
 invasion hDia1 − Kitzing et al., 2007  
SH4 domain overexpression causes spontaneous
     disruption of actin cortex Cell invasion  Tournaviti et al., 2007  
Filamin A deficiency in M2 cells leads to
     spontaneous disruption of actin cortex ND   Cunningham et al., 1992;
 Charras et al., 2005  
Talin deficiency in megakaryocytes ND     Wang et al., 2008  
Overexpression of RhoA Q63L in epithelial cells Cell
 dissemination    Vasiliev et al., 2004  
Overexpression of active DIP ND  mDia2  Eisenmann et al., 2007  
Rac1 deficiency in mouse fibroblasts Cell proliferation
 and morphology     Vidali et al., 2006  
Overexpression of FilGAP causes Rac inhibition and
     suppresses integrin-mediated cell spreading Cell polarity    Ohta et al., 2006  
RacL61A37 overexpression ND     Schwartz et al., 1998  
Overexpression of PM-anchored MARCKS Reduced
 adhesion     Myat et al., 1997  
Disruption of membrane–cytoskeleton interaction
     by reduced PM PIP2 levels as a result of
     experimental depletion or PIP5Kγ deficiency ND     Raucher et al., 2000;
 Wang et al., 2008  
Migration of primordial germ cells toward SDF1α
     in zebrafish Chemotaxis   Blaser et al., 2006  
Cell migration of Dictyostelium toward cAMP Chemotaxis    Langridge and Kay, 2006;
 Yoshida and Soldati, 2006  
Exposure of neuroblastoma cells to
     lysophosphatidic acid ND    Hagmann et al., 1999  
Cholecystokinin stimulation of pancreatic acini ND   Singh and McNiven, 2008  
Extracellular ATP via P2X7 surface receptors in
     various cell types ND   MacKenzie et al., 2001;
 Verhoef et al., 2003;
 Panupinthu et al., 2007  
Vaccinia virus presenting phosphatidylserine as
     pseudoapoptotic signal Vaccinia virus
 entry − (Rac)   Mercer and Helenius, 2008  
Pseudomonas aeruginosa contact with
     epithelial cells Pathogen motility     Angus et al., 2008   
Nonapoptotic bleb formation
 caused by
Proposed
 function
Rho/ROCK
Myosin
Formin
Src
References
Protease inhibition in 3D collagen converts
     spindle-shaped HAT1080 and MDA-MB231
     cells into spherical cell shape by remodeling of
     contractile actin cortex Tumor cell
 invasion     Wolf et al., 2003  
A375 cells in 3D matrigel leads to cell rounding
     and remodeling of contractile actin cortex Tumor cell
 invasion    Sahai and Marshall, 2003  
p53−/− MEFs and A375 cells have elevated
     RhoA activity leading to cell rounding Cell invasion    Gadea et al., 2007  
MDA-MB-435 cells in 3D matrigel leads to cell
     rounding and remodeling of the contractile
     actin cortex Tumor cell
 invasion hDia1 − Kitzing et al., 2007  
SH4 domain overexpression causes spontaneous
     disruption of actin cortex Cell invasion  Tournaviti et al., 2007  
Filamin A deficiency in M2 cells leads to
     spontaneous disruption of actin cortex ND   Cunningham et al., 1992;
 Charras et al., 2005  
Talin deficiency in megakaryocytes ND     Wang et al., 2008  
Overexpression of RhoA Q63L in epithelial cells Cell
 dissemination    Vasiliev et al., 2004  
Overexpression of active DIP ND  mDia2  Eisenmann et al., 2007  
Rac1 deficiency in mouse fibroblasts Cell proliferation
 and morphology     Vidali et al., 2006  
Overexpression of FilGAP causes Rac inhibition and
     suppresses integrin-mediated cell spreading Cell polarity    Ohta et al., 2006  
RacL61A37 overexpression ND     Schwartz et al., 1998  
Overexpression of PM-anchored MARCKS Reduced
 adhesion     Myat et al., 1997  
Disruption of membrane–cytoskeleton interaction
     by reduced PM PIP2 levels as a result of
     experimental depletion or PIP5Kγ deficiency ND     Raucher et al., 2000;
 Wang et al., 2008  
Migration of primordial germ cells toward SDF1α
     in zebrafish Chemotaxis   Blaser et al., 2006  
Cell migration of Dictyostelium toward cAMP Chemotaxis    Langridge and Kay, 2006;
 Yoshida and Soldati, 2006  
Exposure of neuroblastoma cells to
     lysophosphatidic acid ND    Hagmann et al., 1999  
Cholecystokinin stimulation of pancreatic acini ND   Singh and McNiven, 2008  
Extracellular ATP via P2X7 surface receptors in
     various cell types ND   MacKenzie et al., 2001;
 Verhoef et al., 2003;
 Panupinthu et al., 2007  
Vaccinia virus presenting phosphatidylserine as
     pseudoapoptotic signal Vaccinia virus
 entry − (Rac)   Mercer and Helenius, 2008  
Pseudomonas aeruginosa contact with
     epithelial cells Pathogen motility     Angus et al., 2008   
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