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Table 1.
Beneficial and pathogenic activities of IL-17
CauseIL-17–induced responseOutcomeReferences
Beneficial functions 
C. albicans infection Neutrophilia (via the induction of G-CSF, CXCL1, etc.) and production of antimicrobial peptides Clearance of invading fungi Bär et al., 2014; Conti et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2004; Kagami et al., 2010; Sparber et al., 2018; 
Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections Neutrophilia (via the induction of G-CSF, CXCL1, etc.) and production of antimicrobial peptides Clearance of invading extracellular bacteria Cho et al., 2010; DeLyria et al., 2009; Ferreira et al., 2009; Khader et al., 2007; Priebe et al., 2008  
SFB colonization Production of α-defensin and induction of Pigir, which increased IgA trancytosis Limiting the SFB expansion Kumar et al., 2016  
Staphylococcus epidermidis colonization Upregulation of S100A8 and S100A9, and recruitment of neutrophils Preventing fungal infection  Naik et al., 2015  
Colonization by mucosal-resident commensals Production of RegIIIγ and induction of Pigir, increasing IgA transcytosis Reinforced intestinal immune barrier Martínez-López et al., 2019  
Acute ETBF colonization Mucosal proliferation and recruitment of leukocyte Fight infection and restore the barrier integrity Geis et al., 2015  
Mechanical injury to the skin Expression of antimicrobial molecules, including RegIIIγ; activation of Lrig1+ skin stem cells and induction of progenies from Lrig1+ cells for tissue repair Wound closure Chen et al., 2019; MacLeod et al., 2013  
Damage to intestinal epithelium Enhanced tight junctions among epithelial cells; induction of Plet1+ progenitor cells for tissue repair Reinforced intestinal physical barrier, restoration of intestinal epithelium Lee et al., 2015; Song et al., 2015; Zepp et al., 2017  
CDE-induced liver inflammation Liver progenitor cell expansion and differentiation Liver regeneration Guillot et al., 2018  
Bone injury Activation of osteoblast Bone regeneration Ono et al., 2016  
Pathogenic functions 
Chronic ETBF colonization in mice with oncogenic mutation Recruitment of polymorphonuclear myeloid cells Colon tumorigenesis Chung et al., 2018; Wu et al., 2009; Housseau and Sears, 2010; Geis et al., 2015  
Oncogenic mutation (Kras, loss of p53)–induced dysbiosis in the lung Recruitment of neutrophils Formation of lung adenocarcinoma Jin et al., 2019  
Chemical-induced liver damage Recruitment of MDSCs Liver tumorigenesis Sun et al., 2016  
Chemical/wounding-induced skin inflammation and injury Proliferation of Lrig1+ skin stem, expansion and migration of progenies of Lrig1+ stem cells for tissue repair Skin tumorigenesis Chen et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2015  
Damage to intestinal epithelium Induction of Plet1+ progenitor cells for tissue repair Colon tumorigenesis Zepp et al., 2017  
Compromised intestinal barrier integrity from loss of tumor suppressor gene Apc Proliferation of transformed enterocytes, induction of IL-6 Colon tumorigenesis Wang et al., 2014; Grivennikov et al., 2012  
Oncogenic mutation (Kras) Induction of stem cell phenotype in transformed pancreatic cells Pancreatic tumorigenesis McAllister et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2018  
CauseIL-17–induced responseOutcomeReferences
Beneficial functions 
C. albicans infection Neutrophilia (via the induction of G-CSF, CXCL1, etc.) and production of antimicrobial peptides Clearance of invading fungi Bär et al., 2014; Conti et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2004; Kagami et al., 2010; Sparber et al., 2018; 
Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections Neutrophilia (via the induction of G-CSF, CXCL1, etc.) and production of antimicrobial peptides Clearance of invading extracellular bacteria Cho et al., 2010; DeLyria et al., 2009; Ferreira et al., 2009; Khader et al., 2007; Priebe et al., 2008  
SFB colonization Production of α-defensin and induction of Pigir, which increased IgA trancytosis Limiting the SFB expansion Kumar et al., 2016  
Staphylococcus epidermidis colonization Upregulation of S100A8 and S100A9, and recruitment of neutrophils Preventing fungal infection  Naik et al., 2015  
Colonization by mucosal-resident commensals Production of RegIIIγ and induction of Pigir, increasing IgA transcytosis Reinforced intestinal immune barrier Martínez-López et al., 2019  
Acute ETBF colonization Mucosal proliferation and recruitment of leukocyte Fight infection and restore the barrier integrity Geis et al., 2015  
Mechanical injury to the skin Expression of antimicrobial molecules, including RegIIIγ; activation of Lrig1+ skin stem cells and induction of progenies from Lrig1+ cells for tissue repair Wound closure Chen et al., 2019; MacLeod et al., 2013  
Damage to intestinal epithelium Enhanced tight junctions among epithelial cells; induction of Plet1+ progenitor cells for tissue repair Reinforced intestinal physical barrier, restoration of intestinal epithelium Lee et al., 2015; Song et al., 2015; Zepp et al., 2017  
CDE-induced liver inflammation Liver progenitor cell expansion and differentiation Liver regeneration Guillot et al., 2018  
Bone injury Activation of osteoblast Bone regeneration Ono et al., 2016  
Pathogenic functions 
Chronic ETBF colonization in mice with oncogenic mutation Recruitment of polymorphonuclear myeloid cells Colon tumorigenesis Chung et al., 2018; Wu et al., 2009; Housseau and Sears, 2010; Geis et al., 2015  
Oncogenic mutation (Kras, loss of p53)–induced dysbiosis in the lung Recruitment of neutrophils Formation of lung adenocarcinoma Jin et al., 2019  
Chemical-induced liver damage Recruitment of MDSCs Liver tumorigenesis Sun et al., 2016  
Chemical/wounding-induced skin inflammation and injury Proliferation of Lrig1+ skin stem, expansion and migration of progenies of Lrig1+ stem cells for tissue repair Skin tumorigenesis Chen et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2015  
Damage to intestinal epithelium Induction of Plet1+ progenitor cells for tissue repair Colon tumorigenesis Zepp et al., 2017  
Compromised intestinal barrier integrity from loss of tumor suppressor gene Apc Proliferation of transformed enterocytes, induction of IL-6 Colon tumorigenesis Wang et al., 2014; Grivennikov et al., 2012  
Oncogenic mutation (Kras) Induction of stem cell phenotype in transformed pancreatic cells Pancreatic tumorigenesis McAllister et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2018  

Gray shading indicates induction of inflammatory mediators; yellow shading indicates activation of cell proliferation. CDE, ethionine-supplemented; SFB, segmented filamentous bacteria.

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