Asymmetric membrane currents and fluxes of Ca2+ release were determined in skeletal muscle fibers voltage clamped in a Vaseline-gap chamber. The conditioning pulse protocol 1 for suppressing Ca2+ release and the "hump" component of charge movement current (I gamma), described in the first paper of this series, was applied at different test pulse voltages. The amplitude of the current suppressed during the ON transient reached a maximum at slightly suprathreshold test voltages (-50 to -40 mV) and decayed at higher voltages. The component of charge movement current suppressed by 20 microM tetracaine also went through a maximum at low pulse voltages. This anomalous voltage dependence is thus a property of I gamma, defined by either the conditioning protocol or the tetracaine effect. A negative (inward-going) phase was often observed in the asymmetric current during the ON of depolarizing pulses. This inward phase was shown to be an intramembranous charge movement based on (a) its presence in the records of total membrane current, (b) its voltage dependence, with a maximum at slightly suprathreshold voltages, (c) its association with a "hump" in the asymmetric current, (d) its inhibition by interventions that reduce the "hump", (e) equality of ON and OFF areas in the records of asymmetric current presenting this inward phase, and (f) its kinetic relationship with the time derivative of Ca release flux. The nonmonotonic voltage dependence of the amplitude of the hump and the possibility of an inward phase of intramembranous charge movement are used as the main criteria in the quantitative testing of a specific model. According to this model, released Ca2+ binds to negatively charged sites on the myoplasmic face of the voltage sensor and increases the local transmembrane potential, thus driving additional charge movement (the hump). This model successfully predicts the anomalous voltage dependence and all the kinetic properties of I gamma described in the previous papers. It also accounts for the inward phase in total asymmetric current and in the current suppressed by protocol 1. According to this model, I gamma accompanies activating transitions at the same set of voltage sensors as I beta. Therefore it should open additional release channels, which in turn should cause more I gamma, providing a positive feedback mechanism in the regulation of calcium release.
The relationship between Q gamma and Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle.
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G Pizarro, L Csernoch, I Uribe, M Rodríguez, E Ríos; The relationship between Q gamma and Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle.. J Gen Physiol 1 May 1991; 97 (5): 913–947. doi: https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.97.5.913
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