Squid giant axons injected with either aequorin or arsenazo III and bathed in 3 mM Ca (Na) seawater were transferred to 3 mM Ca (K) seawater and the response of the aequorin light or the change in the absorbance of arsenazo III was followed. These experimental conditions were chosen because they measure the change in the rate of Na/Ca exchange in introducing Ca into the axon upon depolarization; [Ca]o is too low to effect a channel-based system of Ca entry. This procedure was applied to axons treated with a variety of compounds that have been implicated as inhibitors of Na/Ca exchange. The result obtained was that the substances tested could be placed in three groups. (a) Substances that were without effect on Ca entry effected by Na/Ca exchange were: D600 at 10-100 microM, nitrendipine at 1-5 microM, Ba2+ and Mg2+ at concentrations of 10-50 mM, lidocaine at 0.1-10 mM, cyanide at 2 mM, adriamycin at a concentration of 3 microM, chloradenosine at 35 microM, 2,4-diaminopyridine at 1 mM, Cs+ at 45-90 mM, and tetrodotoxin at 10(-7). (b) Substances that had a significant inhibitory effect on Na/Ca exchange were: Mn2+, Cd2+, and La3+ at 1-50 mM, and quinidine at 50 microM. (c) There were also blocking agents and biochemical inhibitors whose action appeared to be the inhibition of nonmitochondrial Ca buffering in axoplasm rather than an inhibition of Na/Ca exchange. These were the general anesthetic l-octanol at 0.1 mM and 1 mM orthovanadate plus apyrase.
The influence of chemical agents on the level of ionized [Ca2+] in squid axons.
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J Requena, J Whittembury, T Tiffert, D A Eisner, L J Mullins; The influence of chemical agents on the level of ionized [Ca2+] in squid axons.. J Gen Physiol 1 June 1985; 85 (6): 789–804. doi: https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.85.6.789
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