Coordinated swimming movements in Yungia are not dependent upon the presence of the brain. The neuromuscular mechanism necessary for spontaneous movement and swimming is complete in the body of the animal apart from the brain. Normally this mechanism is set in motion by sensory stimulation arriving by way of the brain. The latter is a region of low threshold and acts as an amplifier by sending the impulses into a great number of channels. When the head is cut off these connections with the sensorium are broken, consequently peripheral stimulation does not have its usual effect. If, however, the motor nerves are stimulated directly as by mechanical stimulation of the median anterior region, then swimming movements result. Also if the threshold of the entire nervous mechanism is lowered by phenol or by an increase in the ion ratios

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and

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then again peripheral stimulation throws the neuromuscular mechanism into activity and swimming movements result.

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