The addition of a hypertonic bathing medium to duck erythrocytes results in an initial instantaneous phase of osmotic shrinkage and, when the [K]o of the hypertonic solution is larger than "normal," in a second, more prolonged phase, the volume regulatory phase. During the latter, which also requires extracellular Na, the cells swell until they approach their initial isotonic volume. The increase in cell volume during the volume regulatory phase is accomplished by a gain in the cell content of K, Cl, and H2O. There is also a smaller increase in the Na content of the cell. Potassium is accumulated against an electrochemical gradient and is therefore actively transported into the cell. This accumulation is associated with an increase, although dissimilar, in both K influx and efflux. Changes in cell size during the volume regulatory phase are not altered by 10-4 M ouabain, although this concentration of ouabain does change the cellular cation content. The response is independent of any effect of norepinephrine. The changes in cell size during the volume regulatory phase are discussed as the product of a volume controlling mechanism identical in principle to the one reported in the previous paper which controls cell volume in hypotonic media. Similarly, this mechanism can regulate cell size, when the Na-K exchange, ouabain-inhibitable pump mechanism is blocked.

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