Membrane characteristics of neuron somata in the medulla terminalis ganglionic X-organ of crayfish have been investigated with intracellular glass microelectrodes. The soma membrane developed action potentials with 10–20 mv of overshoot. Delayed rectification appeared at 10–20 mv above resting membrane potential. In 50% of the neuron somata examined, action potentials were observed in Na-free medium or TTX medium. The peak potential level of the spike in these media depended on the extracellular concentration of Ca ion. It increased with the Ca concentration. In low calcium media, the peak potential level of the spike varied with Na concentration. Action potentials of the X-organ-sinus gland tract disappeared after bathing in Na-free or TTX medium, suggesting that the conductive action potential was dependent on Na ions. From these results, it is concluded that there are two systems in the neuron soma, one of which responds to the Na ion and the other, to the Ca ion. Inhibitory innervation of the X-organ by the cerebral ganglion was manifested by IPSP's when the optic peduncle was stimulated. A postulated connection between the Ca-dependent spike and the release of hormone in X-organ neuron somata is discussed.

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