The phenomenological definition of active transport by Kedem and the methods of Kedem and Katchalsky have been used to obtain practical equations describing active transport in the single salt and bi-ionic systems. Procedures were devised to evaluate the required set of 10 coefficients for the single salt case and 15 for the bi-ionic. Three of these coefficients are unusual. They express the effects of active transport, i.e. of entrainment between metabolism and the conventional transport flows: active salt transport coefficient, a volume pump coefficient, and an electrogenicity coefficient. In the bi-ionic case a new passive coefficient, λ, was used to express the linkage between the fluxes of the two salts. However, if primary active transport involves only one ion, for example in the bi-ionic case, 12 coefficients suffice and certain relations can be predicted between the practical coefficients. Particular types of primary active transport could be identified by this means. The relation of active transport to membrane electrogenesis was also examined and the flux ratio equation was rederived in terms of the practical coefficients. Applications to specific parallel and series membrane systems have been analyzed.

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