It is shown by the older experiments by Loeb and by the experiments reported in this paper that the effect of salts on the membrane potentials, osmotic pressure, swelling of gelatin chloride, and that type of viscosity which is due to the swelling of protein particles, depends only on the valency but not on the chemical nature of the anion of the salt, and that the cation of the salt has no effect on these properties, if the pH of the protein solution or protein gel is not altered by the salt. The so called Hofmeister series of salt effects on these four properties are purely fictitious and due to the failure of the former authors to measure the hydrogen ion concentration of their protein solutions or gels and to compare the effects of salts at the same pH of the protein solution or the protein gel. These results confirm the older experiments of Loeb and together they furnish a further proof for the correctness of the idea that the influence of electrolytes on the four properties of proteins is determined by membrane equilibria. Such properties of proteins which do not depend on membrane equilibria, such as solubility or cohesion, may be affected not only by the valency but also by the chemical nature of the ions of a salt.

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