1. It had been shown in previous papers that when a salt solution is separated from pure water by a collodion membrane, water diffuses through the membrane as if it were positively charged and as if it were attracted by the anion of the salt in solution and repelled by the cation with a force increasing with the valency. In this paper, measurements of the P.D. across the membrane (E) are given, showing that when an electrical effect is added to the purely osmotic effect of the salt solution in the transport of water from the side of pure water to the solution, the latter possesses a considerable negative charge which increases with increasing valency of the anion of the salt and diminishes with increasing valency of the cation. It is also shown that a similar valency effect exists in the diffusion potentials between salt solutions and pure water without the interposition of a membrane.
2. This makes it probable that the driving force for the electrical transport of water from the side of pure water into solution is primarily a diffusion potential.
3. It is shown that the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution affects the transport curves and the diffusion potentials in a similar way.
4. It is shown, however, that the diffusion potential without interposition of the membrane differs in a definite sense from the P.D. across the membrane and that therefore the P.D. across the membrane (E) is a modified diffusion potential.
5. Measurements of the P.D. between collodion particles and aqueous solutions (ϵ) were made by the method of cataphoresis, which prove that water in contact with collodion particles free from protein practically always assumes a positive charge (except in the presence of salts with trivalent and probably tetravalent cations of a sufficiently high concentration).
6. It is shown that an electrical transport of water from the side of water into the solution is always superposed upon the osmotic transport when the sign of charge of the solution in the potential across the membrane (E) is opposite to that of the water in the P.D. between collodion particle and water (ϵ); supporting the theoretical deductions made by Bartell.
7. It is shown that the product of the P.D. across the membrane (E) into the cataphoretic P.D. between collodion particles and aqueous solution (ϵ) accounts in general semiquantitatively for that part of the transport of water into the solution which is due to the electrical forces responsible for anomalous osmosis.