An attempt has been made to assess the validity of applying the frictional and viscous coefficients of bulk water to the movement of water and solutes through the urinary bladder of the toad. The temperature dependence of diffusion of THO, C14-urea, C14-thiourea, and net water transfer across the bladder was determined in the presence and absence of vasopressin. The activation energy for diffusion of THO was 9.8 kcal per mole in the absence of vasopressin and 4.1 kcal per mole with the hormone present. Activation energies simultaneously determined following vasopressin for diffusion and net transfers of water were similar, and in the same range as known activation energies for diffusion and viscous flow in water. Urea had activation energies for diffusion of 4.1 and 3.9 kcal per mole in the absence and presence of vasopressin, respectively. Thiourea had a high activation energy for diffusion of 6.3 kcal per mole, which was unchanged, 6.6 kcal per mole, following hormone. These findings suggest that in its rate-limiting permeability barrier, water is present in a structured state, offering a high resistance to penetration by water. Vasopressin enlarges the aqueous channels so that the core of water they contain possesses the physical properties of ordinary bulk water. Urea penetrates the tissue via these aqueous channels while thiourea is limited by some other permeability barrier.

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