Experiments giving evidence of active Na and Cl ion fluxes across large canine blood vessel walls (aorta, vena cava) in vitro have been presented. The information has been obtained using ion tracer techniques after Ussing and with diffusion cells of the Hogben type. The available data suggest that the membranes are satisfactorily oxygenated by the bathing solutions saturated with oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Evidence is offered which indicates that active ion transport does occur across the aorta and vena cava in in vitro experiments. Under the conditions of the experiment net Na and Cl flux takes place from intima to adventitia across the aorta, and from adventitia to intima across the vena cava at low measured potential differences. The possible relationships of derangement of active ion transport mechanisms, produced by electric currents and tissue injury potential differences, to intravascular thrombosis are alluded to. It would appear that sodium and chloride fluxes across large blood vessel walls in vitro occur at least in part as the result of metabolic processes and cannot be explained simply on the basis of diffusion across a semipermeable membrane.

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