The osmotic effect arising across a porous membrane separating the solution of an electrolyte from water (or a more dilute solution) is ordinarily due to both normal osmosis, as it occurs also with non-electrolytes, and to "anomalous" osmosis. It is shown that the normal osmotic component cannot be measured quantitatively by the conventional comparison with a non-electrolytic reference solute. Anomalous osmosis does not occur with electroneutral membranes. Accordingly, with membranes which can be charged and discharged reversibly (without changes in geometrical structure), such as many proteinized membranes, the osmotic effects caused by an electrolyte can be measured both when only normal osmosis arises (with the membrane in the electroneutral state) and when normal as well as anomalous osmosis occurs (with the membrane in a charged state). The difference between these two effects is the true anomalous osmosis. Data are presented on the osmotic effects across an oxyhemoglobin membrane in the uncharged state at pH 6.75 and in two charged states, positive at pH 4.0 and negative at pH 10.0, with solutions of a variety of electrolytes using a concentration ratio of 2:1 over a wide range of concentrations. The rates of the movement of liquid across the membrane against an inconsequentially small hydrostatic head are recorded instead of, as conventional, the physiologically less significant pressure rises after a standard time.

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