1. The proof is completed that the influence of electrolytes on the viscosity of suspensions of powdered particles of gelatin in water is similar to the influence of electrolytes on the viscosity of solutions of gelatin in water.

2. It has been suggested that the high viscosity of proteins is due to the existence of a different type of viscosity from that existing in crystalloids. It is shown that such an assumption is unnecessary and that the high viscosity of solutions of isoelectric gelatin can be accounted for quantitatively on the assumption that the relative volume of the gelatin in solution is comparatively high.

3. Since isoelectric gelatin is not ionized, the large volume cannot be due to a hydration of gelatin ions. It is suggested that this high volume of gelatin solutions is caused by the existence in the gelatin solution of submicroscopic pieces of solid gelatin occluding water, the relative quantity of which is regulated by the Donnan equilibrium. This would also explain why the influence of electrolytes on the viscosity of gelatin solutions is similar to the influence of electrolytes on the viscosity of suspensions of particles of gelatin.

4. This idea is supported by experiments on solutions and suspensions of casein chloride in which it is shown that their viscosity is chiefly due to the swelling of solid particles of casein, occluding quantities of water regulated by the Donnan equilibrium; and that the breaking up of these solid particles into smaller particles, no longer capable of swelling, diminishes the viscosity.

5. This leads to the idea that proteins form true solutions in water which in certain cases, however, contain, side by side with isolated ions and molecules, submicroscopic solid particles capable of occluding water whereby the relative volume and the viscosity of the solution is considerably increased. This accounts not only for the high order of magnitude of the viscosity of such protein solutions but also for the fact that the viscosity is influenced by electrolytes in a similar way as is the swelling of protein particles.

6. We therefore reach the conclusion that there are two sources for the viscosity of protein solutions; one due to the isolated protein ions and molecules, and the other to the submicroscopic solid particles contained in the solution. The viscosity due to the isolated molecules and ions of proteins we will call the general viscosity since it is of a similar low order of magnitude as that of crystalloids in solution; while the high viscosity due to the submicroscopic solid protein particles capable of occluding water and of swelling we will call the special viscosity of protein solutions. Under ordinary conditions of hydrogen ion concentration and temperature (and in not too high a concentration of the protein in solution) the general viscosity due to isolated ions and molecules prevails in solutions of crystalline egg albumin and in solutions of metal caseinates (where the metal is monovalent) while under the same conditions the second type of viscosity prevails in solutions of gelatin and in solutions of acid-salts of casein; and also in solutions of crystalline egg albumin at a pH below 1.0 and at higher temperatures. The special viscosity is higher in solutions of gelatin than of casein salts for the probable reason that the amount of water occluded by the submicroscopic solid gel particles in a gelatin solution is, as a rule, considerably higher than that occluded by the corresponding particles of casein.

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