1. It is shown that a neutral salt depresses the potential difference which exists at the point of equilibrium between a gelatin chloride solution contained in a collodion bag and an outside aqueous solution (without gelatin). The depressing effect of a neutral salt on the P.D. is similar to the depression of the osmotic pressure of the gelatin chloride solution by the same salt.
2. It is shown that this depression of the P.D. by the salt can be calculated with a fair degree of accuracy on the basis of Nernst's logarithmic formula on the assumption that the P.D. which exists at the point of equilibrium is due to the difference of the hydrogen ion concentration on the opposite sides of the membrane.
3. Since this difference of hydrogen ion concentration on both sides of the membrane is due to Donnan's membrane equilibrium this latter equilibrium must be the cause of the P.D.
4. A definite P.D. exists also between a solid block of gelatin chloride and the surrounding aqueous solution at the point of equilibrium and this P.D. is depressed in a similar way as the swelling of the gelatin chloride by the addition of neutral salts. It is shown that the P.D. can be calculated from the difference in the hydrogen ion concentration inside and outside the block of gelatin at equilibrium.
5. The influence of the hydrogen ion concentration on the P.D. of a gelatin chloride solution is similar to that of the hydrogen ion concentration on the osmotic pressure, swelling, and viscosity of gelatin solutions, and the same is true for the influence of the valency of the anion with which the gelatin is in combination. It is shown that in all these cases the P.D. which exists at equilibrium can be calculated with a fair degree of accuracy from the difference of the pH inside and outside the gelatin solution on the basis of Nernst's logarithmic formula by assuming that the difference in the concentration of hydrogen ions on both sides of the membrane determines the P.D.
6. The P.D. which exists at the boundary of a gelatin chloride solution and water at the point of equilibrium can also be calculated with a fair degree of accuracy by Nernst's logarithmic formula from the value pCl outside minus pCl inside. This proves that the equation x2 = y ( y + z) is the correct expression for the Donnan membrane equilibrium when solutions of protein-acid salts with monovalent anion are separated by a collodion membrane from water. In this equation x is the concentration of the H ion (and the monovalent anion) in the water, y the concentration of the H ion and the monovalent anion of the free acid in the gelatin solution, and z the concentration of the anion in combination with the protein.
7. The similarity between the variation of P.D. and the variation of the osmotic pressure, swelling, and viscosity of gelatin, and the fact that the Donnan equilibrium determines the variation in P.D. raise the question whether or not the variations of the osmotic pressure, swelling, and viscosity are also determined by the Donnan equilibrium.