1. A study of the mode of combination which takes place between certain amino acids, proteins, various carboxylic acids, and certain sulfonic acids and manganous ions to form complexes is reported.
2. Three criteria for complex formation were used: (a) the equilibrium between the substance under test and manganous ions dissolved in aqueous buffered solution and isonitrosoacetophenone dissolved in chloroform; (b) the electrophoretic migration of manganese in the presence of the test substance with varying pH; and (c) anomalous titration.
3. The following classes of substances were found to possess the necessary groupings to form manganese complexes: hydroxy-monocarboxylic acids (lactic, gluconic), dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic), hydroxy-, di- and tricarboxylic acids (citric, tartaric), dicarboxylic amino acids (aspartic, glutamic), certain inorganic acids (phosphoric, sulfuric), certain phosphoric acid-containing compounds (nucleic, glycerophosphoric), certain aromatic enol sulfonic acids (phenolsulfonic, catecholsulfonic), and certain proteins (casein, edestin, gelatin).
4. A correlation between the amount of manganese bound by the several proteins and the free carboxyl and phosphoric acid groups has been made.
5. An explanation based on the residual charge of certain atoms is advanced for the manner in which divalent manganese may be united by the compounds studied.