In measurements of P.D. across the protoplasm in single cells, the presence of parallel circuits along the cell wall may cause serious difficulty. This is particularly the case with marine algae, such as Valonia, where the cell wall is imbibed with a highly conducting solution (sea water), and hence has low electrical resistance. In potential measurements on such material, it is undesirable to use methods in which the surface of the cell is brought in contact with more than one solution at a time. The effect of a second solution wetting a part of the cell surface is discussed, and demonstrated by experiment.

From further measurements with improved technique, we find that the value previously reported for the P.D. of the chain

Valonia sap | Valonia protoplasm | Valonia sap

is too low, and also that the P.D. undergoes characteristic changes during experiments lasting several hours. The maximum P.D. observed is usually between 25 and 35 mv., but occasionally higher values (up to 82 mv.) are found.

The appearance of the cells several days after the experiment, and the P.D.'s which they give with sea water, indicate that no permanent injury has been received as a result of exposure to artificial sap. If such cells are used in a second measurement with artificial sap, however, the form of the P.D.-time curve indicates that the cells have undergone an alteration which persists for a long time.

On the basis of the theory of protoplasmic layers, an attempt has been made to explain the observed changes in P.D. with time, assuming that these changes are due to penetration of KCl into the main body of the protoplasm.

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