Effects of some local anesthetics were studied in patch clamp experiments on enzymatically demyelinated peripheral amphibian nerve fibers. Micromolar concentrations of external bupivacaine depolarized the excised membrane considerably. The flicker K+ channel was found to be the most sensitive ion channel to local anesthetics in this preparation. Half-maximum inhibiting concentrations (IC50) for extracellular application of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, etidocaine, mepivacaine, lidocaine, and QX-314 were 0.21, 4.2, 8.6, 56, 220, and > 10,000 microM, respectively. The corresponding concentration-effect curves could be fitted under the assumption of a 1:1 reaction. Application from the axoplasmic side resulted in clearly lower potencies with IC50 values of 2.1, 6.6, 16, 300, 1,200, and 1,250 microM, respectively. The log(IC50)-values of the local anesthetics linearly depended on the logarithm of their octanol:buffer distribution coefficients with two regression lines for the piperidine derivatives and the standard amino-amides indicating an inherently higher potency of the cyclic piperidine series. Amide-linked local anesthetics did not impair the amplitude of the single-channel current but prolonged the time of the channel to be in the closed state derived as time constants tau c from closed-time histograms. With etidocaine and lidocaine tau c was 133 and 7.2 ms, and proved to be independent of concentration. With the most potent bupivacaine time constants of wash in and wash out were 1.8 and 5.2 s for 600 nM bupivacaine. After lowering the extracellular pH from 7.4 to 6.6, externally applied bupivacaine showed a reduced potency, whereas at higher pH of 8.2 the block was slightly enhanced. Intracellular pH of 6.4, 7.2, 8.0 had almost no effect on internal bupivacaine block. It is concluded that local anesthetics block the flicker K+ channel by impeding its gating but not its conductance. The slow blocker bupivacaine and the fast blocker lidocaine compete for the same receptor. Lipophilic interactions are of importance for blockade but besides a hydrophobic pathway, there exists also a hydrophilic pathway to the binding site which could only be reached from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. Under physiological conditions, blockade of the flicker K+ channel which is more sensitive to bupivacaine than the Na+ channel might lead via membrane depolarization and the resulting sodium channel inactivation to a pronounced block of conduction in thin fibers.

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