1. The method of removing the excess of hydrobromic acid after it has had a chance to react chemically with gelatin has permitted us to measure the amount of Br in combination with the gelatin. It is shown that the curves representing the amount of bromine bound by the gelatin are approximately parallel with the curves for the osmotic pressure, the viscosity, and swelling of the gelatin solution. This proves that the curves for osmotic pressure are an unequivocal function of the number of gelatin bromide molecules formed under the influence of the acid. The cc. of 0.01 N Br in combination with 0.25 gm, of gelatin we call the bromine number.
2. The explanation of this influence of the acid on the physical properties of gelatin is based on the fact that gelatin is an amphoteric electrolyte, which at its isoelectric point is but sparingly soluble in water, while its transformation into a salt with a univalent anion like gelatin Br makes it soluble. The curve for the bromine number thus becomes at the same time the numerical expression for the number of gelatin molecules rendered soluble, and hence the curve for osmotic pressure must of necessity be parallel to the curve for the bromine number.
3. Volumetric analysis shows that gelatin treated previously with HBr is free from Br at the isoelectric point as well as on the more alkaline side from the isoelectric point (pH ≧ 4.7) of gelatin. This is in harmony with the fact that gelatin (like any other amphoteric electrolyte) can dissociate on the alkaline side of its isoelectric point only as an anion. On the more acid side from the isoelectric point gelatin is found to be in combination with Br and the Br number rises with the pH.
4. When we titrate gelatin, treated previously with HBr but possessing a pH = 4,7, with NaOH we find that 25 cc. of a 1 per cent solution of isoelectric gelatin require about 5.25 to 5.5 cc. of 0.01 N NaOH for neutralization (with phenolphthalein as an indicator). This value which was found invariably is therefore a constant which we designate as "NaOH (isoelectric)." When we titrate 0.25 gm. of gelatin previously treated with HBr but possessing a pH < 4.7 more than 5.5 cc. of 0.01 N NaOH are required for neutralization. We will designate this value of NaOH as "(NaOH)n," where n represents the value of pH. If we designate the bromine number for the same pH as "Brn" then we can show that the following equation is generally true: (NaOH)n = NaOH (isoelectric) + Brn. In other words, titration with NaOH of gelatin (previously treated with HBr) and being on the acid side of its isoelectric point results in the neutralization of the pure gelatin (NaOH isoelectric) with NaOH and besides in the neutralization of the HBr in combination with the gelatin. This HBr is set free as soon as through the addition of the NaOH the pH of the gelatin solution becomes equal to 4.7.
5. A comparison between the pH values and the bromine numbers found shows that over 90 per cent of the bromine or HBr found was in our experiments in combination with the gelatin.