Sodium efflux from rings of frog stomach muscle was measured at 5° and 15°C in three different steady states. After incubation in normal, K-free, or ouabain (10-4 M) solutions, intracellular cations stabilized at markedly differing levels. At 5°C, inhibition of Na extrusion was shown in the rate coefficients for 22Na efflux, which were slightly smaller in K-free than in normal solutions, and much smaller in ouabain. Due to the intracellular Na concentration differences, total Na efflux was similar in K-free and ouabain solutions, and only ⅕ as large in normal solution. At 15°C, normal total Na flux was only 1/7;–1/10 inhibitors, and may be underestimated. The total flux differences may involve dependence of the Na pump and Na permeation on internal Na concentration. The Q10 of the steady-state fluxes was 3.7 in ouabain, 2.8 in K-free solution, and 1.9 in normal solution. The high temperature dependence of influx as well as efflux suggests transport mechanisms other than simple diffusion. Sodium turnover in the cell water was 46–66 mM/hr in inhibitors at 15°C, and a high rate of Na extrusion in normal muscle is suggested. However, cell volume:surface ratio is only 1.6 µ and all estimates of Na flux were under 3 pmoles/cm2 per sec, indicating low Na permeability.

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