Unlinked transformations were demonstrated to occur by varying the multiplicity of DNA molecules taken up by competent cells. The number of doubles was directly proportional to the product of the frequency of singles for varying concentrations of cells. The kinetics of transformation to doubles and the effect of DNA concentration on double transformations were consistent with the concept that the cell must take up two molecules of DNA in order to be doubly transformed. Linked markers, on the other hand, were a constant fraction of the single transformation for variations in DNA or cell concentration, or time. The kinetics of transformation of linked markers was the same as for the kinetics of single transforming factors. It was, therefore, concluded that linked transformations involve interaction between the cell and a molecule of DNA carrying both markers. The frequency of transformation was found to be the same from resistance to sensitivity as from sensitivity to resistance for the markers streptomycin (S) and cathomycin (C). Purified DNAs, in general, show lower levels of linkage than crude DNA preparations, and for some crude preparations all the S markers were linked to C, suggesting that some dispersion, at least, was a result of DNA preparation. The inactivation of linked markers by heat, ultraviolet, and DNAase was studied.

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