1. A powerful kinase which changes trypsinogen to trypsin was found to be present in the synthetic liquid culture medium of a mold of the genus Penicillium.
2. The concentration of kinase in the medium is increased gradually during the growth of the mold organism and continues to increase for some time even after the mold has ceased growing.
3. Mold kinase transforms trypsinogen to trypsin only in an acid medium. It differs thus from enterokinase and trypsin which activate trypsinogen best in a slightly alkaline medium.
4. The action of the mold kinase in the process of transformation of trypsinogen is that of a typical enzyme. The process follows the course of a catalytic unimolecular reaction, the rate of formation of a definite amount of trypsin being proportional to the concentration of kinase added. The ultimate amount of trypsin formed, however, is independent of the concentration of kinase used.
5. The formation of trypsin from trypsinogen by mold kinase is not accompanied by any measurable loss of protein.
6. The temperature coefficient of formation of trypsin from trypsinogen by mold kinase varies from Q5–15 = 1.70 to Q25–30 = 1.25 with a corresponding variation in the value of µ from 8100 to 4250.
7. Trypsin formed from trypsinogen by means of mold kinase is identical in crystalline form with the crystalline trypsin obtained by spontaneous autocatalytic activation of trypsinogen at pH 8.0. The two products have within the experimental error the same solubility and specific activity. A solution saturated with the crystals of either one of the trypsin preparations does not show any increase in protein concentration or activity when crystals of the other trypsin preparation are added.
8. The Penicillium mold kinase has a slight activating effect on chymo-trypsinogen the rate being only 1–2 per cent of that of trypsinogen. The activation, as in the case of trypsinogen, takes place only in an acid medium.
9. Mold kinase is rapidly destroyed when brought to pH 6.5 or higher, and also when heated to 70°C. In the temperature range of 50–60°C. the inactivation of kinase follows a unimolecular course with a temperature coefficient of Q10 = 12.1 and µ = 53,500. The molecular weight of mold kinase, as determined by diffusion, is 40,000.