The rate of diffusion through the non-aqueous layer of the protoplasm depends largely on the partition coefficients mentioned above. Since these cannot be determined we have employed an artificial system in which chloroform is used in place of the non-aqueous layer of the protoplasm. The partition coefficients may be roughly determined by shaking up the aqueous solutions with chloroform and analyzing with the spectrophotometer (which is necessary with methylene blue because we are dealing with mixtures). This will show what dyes may be expected to pass through the protoplasm into the vacuole in case it behaves like the artificial system.

From these results we may conclude that the artificial system and the living cell act almost alike toward methylene blue and azure B, which supports the notion of non-aqueous layers in the protoplasm.

There is a close resemblance between Valonia and the artificial system in their behavior toward these dyes at pH 9.5.

In the case of Nitella, on the other hand, with methylene blue solution at pH 9.2 the sap in the artificial system takes up relatively more azure B (absorption maximum at 650 mµ) than the vacuole of the living cell (655 mµ). But both take up azure B much more rapidly than methylene blue.

A comparison cannot be made between the behavior of the artificial system and that of the living cell at pH 5.5 since in the latter case there arises a question of injury to cells before enough dye is collected in the sap for analysis.

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