Sustained changes in blood flow modulate the size of conduit arteries through structural alterations of the vessel wall that are dependent on the transient accumulation and activation of perivascular macrophages. The leukocytic infiltrate appears to be confined to the adventitia, is responsible for medial remodeling, and resolves once hemodynamic stresses have normalized without obvious intimal changes. We report that inward remodeling of the mouse common carotid artery after ligation of the ipsilateral external carotid artery is dependent on the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Wild-type myeloid cells restored flow-mediated vascular remodeling in CXCR3-deficient recipients, adventitia-infiltrating macrophages of Gr1 low resident phenotype expressed CXCR3, the perivascular accumulation of macrophages was dependent on CXCR3 signaling, and the CXCR3 ligand IP-10 was sufficient to recruit monocytes to the adventitia. CXCR3 also contributed to selective features of macrophage activation required for extracellular matrix turnover, such as production of the transglutaminase factor XIII A subunit. Human adventitial macrophages displaying a CD14 + /CD16 + resident phenotype, but not circulating monocytes, expressed CXCR3, and such cells were more frequent at sites of disturbed flow. Our observations reveal a CXCR3-dependent accumulation and activation of perivascular macrophages as a necessary step in homeostatic arterial remodeling triggered by hemodynamic stress in mice and possibly in humans as well.