Plasmodium infection in Anopheles is influenced by mosquito-derived factors. We previously showed that a protein in saliva from infected Anopheles , mosquito gamma-interferon–inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (mosGILT), inhibits the ability of sporozoites to traverse cells and readily establish infection of the vertebrate host. To determine whether mosGILT influences Plasmodium within the mosquito, we generated Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes carrying mosaic mutations in the mosGILT gene using CRISPR/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9). Here, we show that female mosaic mosGILT mutant mosquitoes display defects in ovarian development and refractoriness to Plasmodium . Following infection by either Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium falciparum , mutant mosquitoes have significantly reduced oocyst numbers as a result of increased thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1)–dependent parasite killing. Expression of vitellogenin (Vg), the major yolk protein that can reduce the parasite-killing efficiency of TEP1, is severely impaired in mutant mosquitoes. MosGILT is a mosquito factor that is essential for ovarian development and indirectly protects both human and rodent Plasmodium species from mosquito immunity.