Cover ImageCover picture: Memory B cells can form germinal centers in response to self-antigen. Transgenic mice expressing the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) were injected with a mixture of memory B cells derived from influenza virus primed BALB/c mice and HA-specific CD4-positive T cells. 5 d later, splenic sections were taken and stained to identify IgD-positive (blue) and peanut agglutininpositive (red) cells. Well organized germinal centers were present in HA-transgenic mice (left panel) but not in nontransgenic littermates (right panel). Even though the HA is recognized by HA-specific memory B cells and can induce these cells to form germinal centers, HA-transgenic and nontransgenic mice were found to generate equivalent memory B cell responses after virus immunization. These studies indicate that specificity for self-antigen does not prevent the maturation of autoreactive B cells in the germinal center pathway, arguing against the existence of a second window of tolerance induction during memory B cell formation. See related article in this issue by Reed et al., pp. 1763-1774.
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Functionally Inert HIV-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Do Not Play a Major Role in Chronically Infected Adults and Children
Philip J.R. Goulder,Yanhua Tang,Christian Brander,Michael R. Betts,Marcus Altfeld,Ken Annamalai,Alicja Trocha,Suqin He,Eric S. Rosenberg,Graham Ogg,Christopher A. O'Callaghan,Spyros A. Kalams,Ross E. McKinney, Jr.,Kenneth Mayer,Richard A. Koup,Stephen I. Pelton,Sandra K. Burchett,Kenneth McIntosh,Bruce D. Walker
Brief Definitive Report