When blood plasma proteins are depleted by bleeding with return of the washed red cells (plasmapheresis) it is possible to bring dogs to a steady state of hypoproteinemia and a constant level of plasma protein production if the diet protein intake is controlled and limited. Such dogs are outwardly normal but have a lowered resistance to infection and to certain intoxications.
When the protein intake of such dogs is completely replaced by the growth mixture (Rose) of crystalline amino acids, plasma protein production is excellent, weight and nitrogen balance are maintained. This growth mixture consists of ten amino acids, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophane, lysine, phenylalanine, methionine, histidine, arginine, and is as effective as most diet proteins in plasma protein production.
The above amino acid mixture in aqueous solution may be given by vein with equally good plasma protein production and no apparent clinical disturbance even when given rapidly.
Cystine may replace methionine in the above mixture with equally good plasma protein production for 7 to 10 days but at the expense of the body tissues, that is, with weight loss and a negative nitrogen balance.
The addition of cystine to the protein-free, otherwise adequate diet may result in the production of considerable new plasma protein during a period as long as 1 week (cystine effect). This reaction may depend upon the amino acid constitution of the preceding diet protein in that it occurred following a liver feeding but did not occur after pancreas feeding.
Arginine is required in the diet of the protein depleted dog for fabrication of plasma protein. It is apparently not needed for nitrogen balance for as long as 1 or 2 weeks.
The omission of either threonine or valine from the growth mixture is quickly followed by a sharp decline in plasma protein formation and by a negative nitrogen balance.
When histidine, arginine, and most of the lysine are omitted from the growth mixture, nitrogen balance and weight may be maintained for as long as 1 week but plasma protein production falls off markedly.
The findings indicate that the growth mixture of amino acids should be a valuable addition to transfusion and infusion therapy in disease states associated with deficient nitrogen intake or tissue injury and accelerated nitrogen loss, including shock, burns, and major operative procedures.