1. Injection of a suspension of potato starch cells into the left branch of the pulmonary artery, in quantity sufficient ordinarily to give rise to markedly accelerated respirations, resulted in no change in respiratory rate.
2. A method for injecting substances into the pulmonary artery or its branches without interfering with the blood flow to the lungs has been described.
3. Injection of similar material into one lung when the other is excluded from the circulation either by ligation or by temporary clamping does give rise to rapid and shallow breathing (from a rate of 10 to 15 per minute to one of 60 or over) identical in character to that brought about by introducing emboli into both lungs.
4. A method for clamping and releasing the pulmonary artery or its branches in a dog breathing normally with closed thorax has been devised. This is described in detail in another paper.
5. After rapid breathing has been initiated by the effect of emboli lodged in the arterioles and capillaries of the right lung, reestablishing the circulation in the other lung by releasing the clamp on its artery may or may not restore the respiratory rate to its original, normal level.
6. This discrepancy in results has not been correlated with any difference in oxygen saturation of the arterial blood, or in carbon dioxide tension or pH of its plasma.
7. It is, however, believed to be related to the gross and microscopic anatomy of the lung of which the artery has been temporarily clamped. Photomicrographs are published, showing in one dog (No. 3), in which the respiratory rate returned to normal, a normal histological picture of the left lung, and in another dog (No. 4), in which the rate remained rapid after release of the clamp, a picture characterized by congestion and dilatation of arterioles and capillaries.
8. The fact that accelerated respirations result from emboli in the pulmonary capillaries and arterioles only after a certain quantity of material has been introduced, and the fact that emboli in one lung do not occasion accelerated respirations unless the circulation through the other lung is occluded or abnormal, leads us to the conclusion that the phenomenon is not an irritative stimulus due to foreign bodies, but is in some manner related to (a) diminution of the pulmonary vascular bed, (b) resistance to the blood flow through the lungs or (c) congestion or dilatation of the arterioles and capillaries of the lungs.