We examined the effect of the human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) Tax gene product on the human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) promoter. Transfection of deleted constructs of the TGF-beta 1 promoter revealed regions homologous with AP-1 binding sites that were required for Tax-induced transactivation of the TGF-beta 1 promoter. In addition, we examined the expression and secretion of TGF-beta in fresh leukemic cells isolated from patients with adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines. We report that fresh leukemic cells from ATL patients constitutively produce high levels of TGF-beta 1 mRNA and secrete TGF-beta 1 but not TGF-beta 2 into the culture medium. In addition, long-term ATL cell lines expressed significant amounts of TGF-beta 1 mRNA as well as detectable levels of TGF-beta 1 protein. These results suggest a role for Tax in the upregulation of TGF-beta 1 in HTLV-I-infected cells.
Transactivation of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) gene by human T lymphotropic virus type 1 tax: a potential mechanism for the increased production of TGF-beta 1 in adult T cell leukemia.
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S J Kim, J H Kehrl, J Burton, C L Tendler, K T Jeang, D Danielpour, C Thevenin, K Y Kim, M B Sporn, A B Roberts; Transactivation of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) gene by human T lymphotropic virus type 1 tax: a potential mechanism for the increased production of TGF-beta 1 in adult T cell leukemia.. J Exp Med 1 July 1990; 172 (1): 121–129. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.172.1.121
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