Frozen brain specimens from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurologic diseases were analyzed using immunocytochemical techniques for the presence of TNF. In brain lesions in MS, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, TNF+ cells were demonstrated. At the lesion site in MS, TNF+ staining is associated with both astrocytes and macrophages. These observations were not made in Alzheimer's disease or normal brain tissue. The presence of TNF in MS lesions suggests a significant role for cytokines and the immune response in disease progression.

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