Human cytotoxic T cells specific for influenza A virus were tested for recognition of each of the ten influenza A virus proteins expressed in target cells using recombinant vaccinia viruses. They recognized the matrix M1, polymerase PB2, and nucleoproteins of influenza virus in association with MHC class I antigens. These internal viral proteins were seen by CTL in conjunction with one or more of the available dependent HLA gene products. There was no detectable recognition of influenza virus surface glycoproteins in target cells.

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