The Wassermann reaction in scarlet fever per se is uniformly negative. The antigen of scarlet fever liver yields practically the same results as that of luetic liver, and both fail to deviate complement with scarlet fever antibodies.
The Noguchi reaction in scarlet fever is practically negative. Sixteen cases, or 6.4 per cent. of 250 cases, were positive when active serum was used; with inactivated serum, but eleven, or 4.4 per cent., remained positive. Five of these eleven cases were also positive with the Wassermann system. In other words, sixteen cases, or 6.4 per cent., were positive according to the Noguchi system with active or inactivated serum or both, whereas with the Wassermann system only 2 per cent. were positive.
The presence of anti-sheep hemolysin normally in human serum is one of the main disturbing factors in the Wassermann system; for this reason, complement and hemolysin (made by immunization of rabbits) require careful titration. A positive Wassermann reaction usually indicates the presence of syphilitic antibodies, and a negative Noguchi reaction, their absence, and both systems should be used in the examination of all cases.