The ultrastructure of the experimental encephalopathy caused by Mycoplasma neurolyticum toxin has been studied. The primary changes are (a) massive distention of astrocytes by fluid, associated with degenerative changes in these cells, (b) mechanical displacement and compression of myelinated axons by swollen astrocytic processes, (c) the appearance of free, extracellular fluid in the white matter, and (d) early primary myelin degeneration without damage to axons.

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