The development of acquired resistance to Salmonella typhimurium has been studied in mice infected intravenously with small numbers of streptomycin-sensitive or streptomycin-resistant organisms. By the 14th day of a primary infection the mouse develops a mechanism capable of destroying completely a super infecting dose of organisms, but is unable to eliminate organisms of the primary infection. The latter are constantly returned to the circulation from necrotic foci at the sites of implantation. Passive transfer of serum from actively infected or vaccinated animals, and immunization with heat-killed organisms, increase the capacity of the host to clear organisms from the blood, but do not interfere to any significant extent with their subsequent multiplication in the tissues. It is concluded that the resistance of actively infected animals depends on a nonhumoral mechanism capable of destroying organisms from endogenous or exogenous sources.

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