1. Investigation of the role of leukocytes in vaccinia virus infection is reported in an in vitro model, in the absence of an immune response.

2. Mouse leukocytes were shown to be capable of inhibiting the progression of vaccinia virus infection in primary mouse embryo fibroblast cultures. The degree of protection varied from slowing of spread of infection to complete control of the infection with eventual elimination of detectable virus and recovery of the culture.

3. Interferon production by leukocytes is thought to be an important factor in the observed protective effect.

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