Inborn errors of immunity lead to autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy, infection, and/or malignancy. Disease-causing JAK1 gain-of-function (GoF) mutations are considered exceedingly rare and have been identified in only four families. Here, we use forward and reverse genetics to identify 59 individuals harboring one of four heterozygous JAK1 variants. In vitro and ex vivo analysis of these variants revealed hyperactive baseline and cytokine-induced STAT phosphorylation and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) levels compared with wild-type JAK1. A systematic review of electronic health records from the BioME Biobank revealed increased likelihood of clinical presentation with autoimmunity, atopy, colitis, and/or dermatitis in JAK1 variant-positive individuals. Finally, treatment of one affected patient with severe atopic dermatitis using the JAK1/JAK2-selective inhibitor, baricitinib, resulted in clinically significant improvement. These findings suggest that individually rare JAK1 GoF variants may underlie an emerging syndrome with more common presentations of autoimmune and inflammatory disease (JAACD syndrome). More broadly, individuals who present with such conditions may benefit from genetic testing for the presence of JAK1 GoF variants.

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