Material transfer is an essential form of intercellular communication to exchange information and resources between cells. Material transfer between neurons and from glia to neurons has been demonstrated to support neuronal survival and activity. Understanding the extent of material transfer in the healthy nervous system is limited. Here we report that in the mouse central nervous system (CNS), neurons receive nuclear and ribosomal material of Sox10-lineage cell (SOL) origin. We show that transfer of SOL-derived material to neurons is region dependent, establishes during postnatal brain maturation, and dynamically responds to LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the adult mouse brain. We identified satellite oligodendrocyte–neuron pairs with loss of plasma membrane integrity between nuclei, suggesting direct material transfer. Together, our findings provide evidence of regionally coordinated transfer of SOL-derived nuclear and ribosomal material to neurons in the mouse CNS, with potential implications for the understanding and modulation of neuronal function and treatment of neurological disorders.

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