B cells undergo several rounds of selection to eliminate potentially pathogenic autoreactive clones, but in contrast to T cells, evidence of positive selection of autoreactive B cells remains moot. Using unique tetramers, we traced natural autoreactive B cells (C1-B) specific for a defined triple-helical epitope on collagen type-II (COL2), constituting a sizeable fraction of the physiological B cell repertoire in mice, rats, and humans. Adoptive transfer of C1-B suppressed arthritis independently of IL10, separating them from IL10-secreting regulatory B cells. Single-cell sequencing revealed an antigen processing and presentation signature, including induced expression of CD72 and CCR7 as surface markers. C1-B presented COL2 to T cells and induced the expansion of regulatory T cells in a contact-dependent manner. CD72 blockade impeded this effect suggesting a new downstream suppressor mechanism that regulates antigen-specific T cell tolerization. Thus, our results indicate that autoreactive antigen-specific naïve B cells tolerize infiltrating T cells against self-antigens to impede the development of tissue-specific autoimmune inflammation.

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