Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NBD), leucine-rich repeat (LRR) containing protein family (NLRs) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors that mediate innate immunity against infections. The endothelium is the first line of defense against blood-borne pathogens, but it is unclear which NLRs control endothelial cell (EC) intrinsic immunity. Here, we demonstrate that human ECs simultaneously activate NLRP1 and CARD8 inflammasomes in response to DPP8/9 inhibitor Val-boro-Pro (VbP). Enterovirus Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)—the most common cause of viral myocarditis—predominantly activates CARD8 in ECs in a manner that requires viral 2A and 3C protease cleavage at CARD8 p.G38 and proteasome function. Genetic deletion of CARD8 in ECs and human embryonic stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (HCMs) attenuates CVB3-induced pyroptosis, inflammation, and viral propagation. Furthermore, using a stratified endothelial–cardiomyocyte co-culture system, we demonstrate that deleting CARD8 in ECs reduces CVB3 infection of the underlying cardiomyocytes. Our study uncovers the unique role of CARD8 inflammasome in endothelium-intrinsic anti-viral immunity.

This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 4.0 International license, as described at
You do not currently have access to this content.