Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NBD), leucine-rich repeat (LRR) containing protein family (NLRs) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors that mediate innate immunity against infections. The endothelium is the first line of defense against blood-borne pathogens, but it is unclear which NLRs control endothelial cell (EC) intrinsic immunity. Here, we demonstrate that human ECs simultaneously activate NLRP1 and CARD8 inflammasomes in response to DPP8/9 inhibitor Val-boro-Pro (VbP). Enterovirus Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)—the most common cause of viral myocarditis—predominantly activates CARD8 in ECs in a manner that requires viral 2A and 3C protease cleavage at CARD8 p.G38 and proteasome function. Genetic deletion of CARD8 in ECs and human embryonic stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (HCMs) attenuates CVB3-induced pyroptosis, inflammation, and viral propagation. Furthermore, using a stratified endothelial–cardiomyocyte co-culture system, we demonstrate that deleting CARD8 in ECs reduces CVB3 infection of the underlying cardiomyocytes. Our study uncovers the unique role of CARD8 inflammasome in endothelium-intrinsic anti-viral immunity.

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